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/*
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 * Copyright 2006-2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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 *
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 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
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 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
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 * (at your option) any later version.
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 *
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 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
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 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
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 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
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 * GNU General Public License for more details.
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 *
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 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
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 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
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 *
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 * Reap any leftover children possibly holding file descriptors.
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 * Children are identified by the stale file descriptor or PGID / SID.
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 * Both can be missed but only the stale file descriptors are important for us.
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 * PGID / SID may be set by the children on their own.
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 * If we fine a candidate we kill it will all its process tree (grandchildren).
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 * The child process is run with `2>&1' redirection (due to forkpty(3)).
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 * 2007-07-10  Jan Kratochvil  <jan.kratochvil@redhat.com>
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 */
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/* For getpgid(2).  */
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#define _GNU_SOURCE 1
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#include <stdio.h>
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#include <stdlib.h>
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#include <sys/types.h>
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#include <sys/wait.h>
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#include <dirent.h>
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#include <unistd.h>
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#include <errno.h>
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#include <ctype.h>
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#include <string.h>
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#include <limits.h>
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#include <fcntl.h>
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#include <assert.h>
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#include <pty.h>
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#include <poll.h>
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#include <sys/stat.h>
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#define LENGTH(x) (sizeof (x) / sizeof (*(x)))
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static const char *progname;
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static volatile int signal_chld_hit = 0;
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static volatile pid_t child;
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static void signal_chld (int signo)
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{
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  if (child && kill (child, 0) != 0)
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    signal_chld_hit = 1;
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}
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static volatile int signal_alrm_hit = 0;
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static void signal_alrm (int signo)
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{
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  signal_alrm_hit = 1;
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}
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static char childptyname[LINE_MAX];
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static void print_child_error (const char *reason, char **argv)
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{
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  char **sp;
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  fprintf (stderr, "%s: %d %s:", progname, (int) child, reason);
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  for (sp = argv; *sp != NULL; sp++)
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    {
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      fputc (' ', stderr);
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      fputs (*sp, stderr);
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    }
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  fputc ('\n', stderr);
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}
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static int read_out (int amaster)
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{
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  char buf[LINE_MAX];
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  ssize_t buf_got;
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  buf_got = read (amaster, buf, sizeof buf);
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  if (buf_got == 0)
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    return 0;
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  /* Weird but at least after POLLHUP we get EIO instead of just EOF.  */
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  if (buf_got == -1 && errno == EIO)
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    return 0;
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  if (buf_got == -1 && errno == EAGAIN)
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    return 0;
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  if (buf_got < 0)
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    {
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      perror ("read (amaster)");
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  if (write (STDOUT_FILENO, buf, buf_got) != buf_got)
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    {
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      perror ("write(2)");
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  return 1;
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}
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static int spawn (char **argv, int timeout)
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{
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  pid_t child_got;
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  int status, amaster, i, rc;
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  struct sigaction act;
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  sigset_t set;
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  struct termios termios;
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  unsigned alarm_orig;
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  /* We do not use signal(2) to be sure we do not have SA_RESTART.  */
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  memset (&act, 0, sizeof (act));
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  act.sa_handler = signal_chld;
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  i = sigemptyset (&act.sa_mask);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  act.sa_flags = 0;	/* !SA_RESTART */
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  i = sigaction (SIGCHLD, &act, NULL);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  i = sigemptyset (&set);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  i = sigaddset (&set, SIGCHLD);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  i = sigprocmask (SIG_SETMASK, &set, NULL);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  /* With TERMP passed as NULL we get "\n" -> "\r\n".  */
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  termios.c_iflag = IGNBRK | IGNPAR;
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  termios.c_oflag = 0;
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  termios.c_cflag = CS8 | CREAD | CLOCAL | HUPCL | B9600;
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  termios.c_lflag = IEXTEN | NOFLSH;
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  memset (termios.c_cc, _POSIX_VDISABLE, sizeof (termios.c_cc));
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  termios.c_cc[VTIME] = 0;
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  termios.c_cc[VMIN ] = 1;
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  cfmakeraw (&termios);
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#ifdef FLUSHO
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  /* Workaround a readline deadlock bug in _get_tty_settings().  */
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  termios.c_lflag &= ~FLUSHO;
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#endif
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  child = forkpty (&amaster, childptyname, &termios, NULL);
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  switch (child)
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    {
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      case -1:
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	perror ("forkpty(3)");
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	exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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      case 0:
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	/* Do not replace STDIN as inferiors query its termios.  */
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#if 0
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	i = close (STDIN_FILENO);
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	assert (i == 0);
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	i = open ("/dev/null", O_RDONLY);
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	assert (i == STDIN_FILENO);
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#endif
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	/* Do not setpgrp(2) in the parent process as the process-group
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	   is shared for the whole sh(1) pipeline we could be a part
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	   of.  The process-group is set according to PID of the first
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	   command in the pipeline.
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	   We would rip even vi(1) in the case of:
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		./orphanripper sh -c 'sleep 1&' | vi -
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	   */
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	/* Do not setpgrp(2) as our pty would not be ours and we would
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	   get `SIGSTOP' later, particularly after spawning gdb(1).
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	   setsid(3) was already executed by forkpty(3) and it would fail if
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	   executed again.  */
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	if (getpid() != getpgrp ())
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	  {
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	    perror ("getpgrp(2)");
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	    exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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	  }
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	execvp (argv[0], argv);
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	perror ("execvp(2)");
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	exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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      default:
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	break;
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    }
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  i = fcntl (amaster, F_SETFL, O_RDWR | O_NONBLOCK);
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  if (i != 0)
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    {
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      perror ("fcntl (amaster, F_SETFL, O_NONBLOCK)");
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  /* We do not use signal(2) to be sure we do not have SA_RESTART.  */
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  act.sa_handler = signal_alrm;
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  i = sigaction (SIGALRM, &act, NULL);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  alarm_orig = alarm (timeout);
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  assert (alarm_orig == 0);
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  i = sigemptyset (&set);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  while (!signal_alrm_hit)
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    {
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      struct pollfd pollfd;
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      pollfd.fd = amaster;
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      pollfd.events = POLLIN;
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      i = ppoll (&pollfd, 1, NULL, &set);
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      if (i == -1 && errno == EINTR)
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	{
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	  if (signal_chld_hit)
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	    break;
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	  /* Non-CHILD child may have exited.  */
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	  continue;
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	}
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      assert (i == 1);
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      /* Data available?  Process it first.  */
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      if (pollfd.revents & POLLIN)
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	{
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	  if (!read_out (amaster))
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	    {
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	      fprintf (stderr, "%s: Unexpected EOF\n", progname);
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	      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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	    }
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	}
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      if (pollfd.revents & POLLHUP)
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        break;
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      if ((pollfd.revents &= ~POLLIN) != 0)
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	{
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	  fprintf (stderr, "%s: ppoll(2): revents 0x%x\n", progname,
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		   (unsigned) pollfd.revents);
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	  exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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	}
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      /* Child exited?  */
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      if (signal_chld_hit)
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	break;
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    }
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  if (signal_alrm_hit)
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    {
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      i = kill (child, SIGKILL);
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      assert (i == 0);
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    }
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  else
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    alarm (0);
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  /* WNOHANG still could fail.  */
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  child_got = waitpid (child, &status, 0);
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  if (child != child_got)
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    {
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      fprintf (stderr, "waitpid (%d) = %d: %m\n", (int) child, (int) child_got);
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  if (signal_alrm_hit)
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    {
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      char *buf;
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      if (asprintf (&buf, "Timed out after %d seconds", timeout) != -1)
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	{
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	  print_child_error (buf, argv);
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	  free (buf);
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	}
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      rc = 128 + SIGALRM;
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    }
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  else if (WIFEXITED (status))
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    rc = WEXITSTATUS (status);
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  else if (WIFSIGNALED (status))
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    {
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      print_child_error (strsignal (WTERMSIG (status)), argv);
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      rc = 128 + WTERMSIG (status);
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    }
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  else if (WIFSTOPPED (status))
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    {
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      fprintf (stderr, "waitpid (%d): WIFSTOPPED - WSTOPSIG is %d\n",
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	       (int) child, WSTOPSIG (status));
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  else
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    {
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      fprintf (stderr, "waitpid (%d): !WIFEXITED (%d)\n", (int) child, status);
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  /* In the POLLHUP case we may not have seen SIGCHLD so far.  */
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  i = sigprocmask (SIG_SETMASK, &set, NULL);
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  assert (i == 0);
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  assert (signal_chld_hit != 0);
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  /* Do not unset O_NONBLOCK as a stale child (the whole purpose of this
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     program) having open its output pty would block us in read_out.  */
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#if 0
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  i = fcntl (amaster, F_SETFL, O_RDONLY /* !O_NONBLOCK */);
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  if (i != 0)
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    {
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      perror ("fcntl (amaster, F_SETFL, O_RDONLY /* !O_NONBLOCK */)");
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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#endif
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  while (read_out (amaster));
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  /* Do not close the master FD as the child would have `/dev/pts/23 (deleted)'
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     entries which are not expected (and expecting ` (deleted)' would be
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     a race.  */
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#if 0
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  i = close (amaster);
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  if (i != 0)
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    {
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      perror ("close (forkpty ()'s amaster)");
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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#endif
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  return rc;
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}
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/* Detected commandline may look weird due to a race:
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   Original command:
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	./orphanripper sh -c 'sleep 1&' &
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   Correct output:
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	[1] 29610
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	./orphanripper: Killed -9 orphan PID 29612 (PGID 29611): sleep 1
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   Raced output (sh(1) child still did not update its argv[]):
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	[1] 29613
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	./orphanripper: Killed -9 orphan PID 29615 (PGID 29614): sh -c sleep 1&
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   We could delay a bit before ripping the children.  */
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static const char *read_cmdline (pid_t pid)
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{
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  char cmdline_fname[32];
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  static char cmdline[LINE_MAX];
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  int fd;
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  ssize_t got;
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  char *s;
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  if (snprintf (cmdline_fname, sizeof cmdline_fname, "/proc/%d/cmdline",
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      (int) pid) < 0)
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    return NULL;
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  fd = open (cmdline_fname, O_RDONLY);
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  if (fd == -1)
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    {
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      /* It may have already exited - ENOENT.  */
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#if 0
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      fprintf (stderr, "%s: open (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname, cmdline_fname);
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#endif
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      return NULL;
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    }
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  got = read (fd, cmdline, sizeof (cmdline) - 1);
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  if (got == -1)
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    fprintf (stderr, "%s: read (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname,
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       cmdline_fname);
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  if (close (fd) != 0)
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    fprintf (stderr, "%s: close (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname,
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       cmdline_fname);
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  if (got < 0)
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    return NULL;
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  /* Convert '\0' argument delimiters to spaces.  */
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  for (s = cmdline; s < cmdline + got; s++)
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    if (!*s)
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      *s = ' ';
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  /* Trim the trailing spaces (typically single '\0'->' ').  */
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  while (s > cmdline && isspace (s[-1]))
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    s--;
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  *s = 0;
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  return cmdline;
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}
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static int dir_scan (const char *dirname,
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		  int (*callback) (struct dirent *dirent, const char *pathname))
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{
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  DIR *dir;
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  struct dirent *dirent;
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  int rc = 0;
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  dir = opendir (dirname);
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  if (dir == NULL)
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    {
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      if (errno == EACCES || errno == ENOENT)
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	return rc;
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      fprintf (stderr, "%s: opendir (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname, dirname);
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  while ((errno = 0, dirent = readdir (dir)))
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    {
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      char pathname[LINE_MAX];
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      int pathname_len;
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      pathname_len = snprintf (pathname, sizeof pathname, "%s/%s",
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				 dirname, dirent->d_name);
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      if (pathname_len <= 0 || pathname_len >= (int) sizeof pathname)
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	{
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	  fprintf (stderr, "entry file name too long: `%s' / `%s'\n",
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		   dirname, dirent->d_name);
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	  continue;
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	}
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      /* RHEL-4.5 on s390x never fills in D_TYPE.  */
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      if (dirent->d_type == DT_UNKNOWN)
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        {
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	  struct stat statbuf;
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	  int i;
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	  /* We are not interested in the /proc/PID/fd/ links targets.  */
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	  i = lstat (pathname, &statbuf);
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	  if (i == -1)
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	    {
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	      if (errno == EACCES || errno == ENOENT)
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	        continue;
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	      fprintf (stderr, "%s: stat (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname, pathname);
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	      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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	    }
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	  if (S_ISDIR (statbuf.st_mode))
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	    dirent->d_type = DT_DIR;
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	  if (S_ISLNK (statbuf.st_mode))
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	    dirent->d_type = DT_LNK;
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	  /* No other D_TYPE types used in this code.  */
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	}
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      rc = (*callback) (dirent, pathname);
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      if (rc != 0)
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	{
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	  errno = 0;
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	  break;
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	}
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    }
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  if (errno != 0)
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    {
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      fprintf (stderr, "%s: readdir (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname, dirname);
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  if (closedir (dir) != 0)
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    {
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      fprintf (stderr, "%s: closedir (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname, dirname);
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  return rc;
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}
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static int fd_fs_scan (pid_t pid, int (*func) (pid_t pid, const char *link))
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{
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  char dirname[64];
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  if (snprintf (dirname, sizeof dirname, "/proc/%d/fd", (int) pid) < 0)
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    {
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      perror ("snprintf(3)");
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      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
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    }
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  int callback (struct dirent *dirent, const char *pathname)
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  {
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    char buf[LINE_MAX];
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    ssize_t buf_len;
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    if ((dirent->d_type != DT_DIR && dirent->d_type != DT_LNK)
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	|| (dirent->d_type == DT_DIR && strcmp (dirent->d_name, ".") != 0
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	    && strcmp (dirent->d_name, "..") != 0)
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	|| (dirent->d_type == DT_LNK && strspn (dirent->d_name, "0123456789")
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	    != strlen (dirent->d_name)))
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      {
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	fprintf (stderr, "Unexpected entry \"%s\" (d_type %u)"
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			 " on readdir (\"%s\"): %m\n",
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		 dirent->d_name, (unsigned) dirent->d_type, dirname);
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	return 0;
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      }
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    if (dirent->d_type == DT_DIR)
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      return 0;
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    buf_len = readlink (pathname, buf, sizeof buf - 1);
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    if (buf_len <= 0 || buf_len >= (ssize_t) sizeof buf - 1)
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      {
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	if (errno != ENOENT && errno != EACCES)
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	  fprintf (stderr, "Error reading link \"%s\": %m\n", pathname);
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	return 0;
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      }
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    buf[buf_len] = 0;
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    return (*func) (pid, buf);
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  }
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  return dir_scan (dirname, callback);
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}
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static void pid_fs_scan (void (*func) (pid_t pid, void *data), void *data)
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{
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  int callback (struct dirent *dirent, const char *pathname)
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  {
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    if (dirent->d_type != DT_DIR
2d64357
	|| strspn (dirent->d_name, "0123456789") != strlen (dirent->d_name))
2d64357
      return 0;
2d64357
    (*func) (atoi (dirent->d_name), data);
2d64357
    return 0;
2d64357
  }
2d64357
2d64357
  dir_scan ("/proc", callback);
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
static int rip_check_ptyname (pid_t pid, const char *link)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  assert (pid != getpid ());
2d64357
2d64357
  return strcmp (link, childptyname) == 0;
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
struct pid
2d64357
  {
2d64357
    struct pid *next;
2d64357
    pid_t pid;
2d64357
  };
2d64357
static struct pid *pid_list;
2d64357
2d64357
static int pid_found (pid_t pid)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  struct pid *entry;
2d64357
2d64357
  for (entry = pid_list; entry != NULL; entry = entry->next)
2d64357
    if (entry->pid == pid)
2d64357
      return 1;
2d64357
  return 0;
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
/* Single pass is not enough, a (multithreaded) process was seen to survive.
2d64357
   Repeated killing of the same process is not enough, zombies can be killed.
2d64357
   */
2d64357
static int cleanup_acted;
2d64357
2d64357
static void pid_record (pid_t pid)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  struct pid *entry;
2d64357
2d64357
  if (pid_found (pid))
2d64357
    return;
2d64357
  cleanup_acted = 1;
2d64357
2d64357
  entry = malloc (sizeof (*entry));
2d64357
  if (entry == NULL)
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      fprintf (stderr, "%s: malloc: %m\n", progname);
2d64357
      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
2d64357
    }
2d64357
  entry->pid = pid;
2d64357
  entry->next = pid_list;
2d64357
  pid_list = entry;
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
static void pid_forall (void (*func) (pid_t pid))
2d64357
{
2d64357
  struct pid *entry;
2d64357
2d64357
  for (entry = pid_list; entry != NULL; entry = entry->next)
2d64357
    (*func) (entry->pid);
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
/* Returns 0 on failure.  */
2d64357
static pid_t pid_get_parent (pid_t pid)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  char fname[64];
2d64357
  FILE *f;
2d64357
  char line[LINE_MAX];
2d64357
  pid_t retval = 0;
2d64357
2d64357
  if (snprintf (fname, sizeof fname, "/proc/%d/status", (int) pid) < 0)
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      perror ("snprintf(3)");
2d64357
      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
2d64357
    }
2d64357
  f = fopen (fname, "r");
2d64357
  if (f == NULL)
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      return 0;
2d64357
    }
2d64357
  while (errno = 0, fgets (line, sizeof line, f) == line)
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      if (strncmp (line, "PPid:\t", sizeof "PPid:\t" - 1) != 0)
2d64357
	continue;
2d64357
      retval = atoi (line + sizeof "PPid:\t" - 1);
2d64357
      errno = 0;
2d64357
      break;
2d64357
    }
2d64357
  if (errno != 0)
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      fprintf (stderr, "%s: fgets (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname, fname);
2d64357
      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
2d64357
    }
2d64357
  if (fclose (f) != 0)
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      fprintf (stderr, "%s: fclose (\"%s\"): %m\n", progname, fname);
2d64357
      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
2d64357
    }
2d64357
  return retval;
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
static void killtree (pid_t pid);
2d64357
2d64357
static void killtree_pid_fs_scan (pid_t pid, void *data)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  pid_t parent_pid = *(pid_t *) data;
2d64357
2d64357
  /* Do not optimize it as we could miss some newly spawned processes.
2d64357
     Always traverse all the leaves.  */
2d64357
#if 0
2d64357
  /* Optimization.  */
2d64357
  if (pid_found (pid))
2d64357
    return;
2d64357
#endif
2d64357
2d64357
  if (pid_get_parent (pid) != parent_pid)
2d64357
    return;
2d64357
2d64357
  killtree (pid);
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
static void killtree (pid_t pid)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  pid_record (pid);
2d64357
  pid_fs_scan (killtree_pid_fs_scan, &pid;;
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
static void rip_pid_fs_scan (pid_t pid, void *data)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  pid_t pgid;
2d64357
2d64357
  /* Shouldn't happen.  */
2d64357
  if (pid == getpid ())
2d64357
    return;
2d64357
2d64357
  /* Check both PGID and the stale file descriptors.  */
2d64357
  pgid = getpgid (pid);
2d64357
  if (pgid == child
2d64357
      || fd_fs_scan (pid, rip_check_ptyname) != 0)
2d64357
    killtree (pid);
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
static void killproc (pid_t pid)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  const char *cmdline;
2d64357
2d64357
  cmdline = read_cmdline (pid);
2d64357
  /* Avoid printing the message for already gone processes.  */
2d64357
  if (kill (pid, 0) != 0 && errno == ESRCH)
2d64357
    return;
2d64357
  if (cmdline == NULL)
2d64357
    cmdline = "<error>";
2d64357
  fprintf (stderr, "%s: Killed -9 orphan PID %d: %s\n", progname, (int) pid, cmdline);
2d64357
  if (kill (pid, SIGKILL) == 0)
2d64357
    cleanup_acted = 1;
2d64357
  else if (errno != ESRCH)
2d64357
    fprintf (stderr, "%s: kill (%d, SIGKILL): %m\n", progname, (int) pid);
2d64357
  /* RHEL-3 kernels cannot SIGKILL a `T (stopped)' process.  */
2d64357
  kill (pid, SIGCONT);
2d64357
  /* Do not waitpid(2) as it cannot be our direct descendant and it gets
2d64357
     cleaned up by init(8).  */
2d64357
#if 0
2d64357
  pid_t pid_got;
2d64357
  pid_got = waitpid (pid, NULL, 0);
2d64357
  if (pid != pid_got)
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      fprintf (stderr, "%s: waitpid (%d) != %d: %m\n", progname,
2d64357
	 (int) pid, (int) pid_got);
2d64357
      return;
2d64357
    }
2d64357
#endif
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
static void rip (void)
2d64357
{
2d64357
  cleanup_acted = 0;
2d64357
  do
2d64357
    {
2d64357
      if (cleanup_acted)
2d64357
        usleep (1000000 / 10);
2d64357
      cleanup_acted = 0;
2d64357
      pid_fs_scan (rip_pid_fs_scan, NULL);
2d64357
      pid_forall (killproc);
2d64357
    }
2d64357
  while (cleanup_acted);
2d64357
}
2d64357
2d64357
int main (int argc, char **argv)
2d64357
{
620a59a
  int timeout = 0;
2d64357
  int rc;
2d64357
620a59a
  progname = *argv++;
620a59a
  argc--;
620a59a
620a59a
  if (argc < 1 || strcmp (*argv, "-h") == 0
620a59a
      || strcmp (*argv, "--help") == 0)
2d64357
    {
620a59a
      puts ("Syntax: orphanripper [-t <seconds>] <execvp(3) commandline>");
2d64357
      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
2d64357
    }
620a59a
  if ((*argv)[0] == '-' && (*argv)[1] == 't')
620a59a
    {
620a59a
      char *timeout_s = NULL;
620a59a
620a59a
      if ((*argv)[2] == 0)
620a59a
	timeout_s = *++argv;
620a59a
      else if (isdigit ((*argv)[2]))
620a59a
	timeout_s = (*argv) + 2;
620a59a
      if (timeout_s != NULL)
620a59a
	{
620a59a
	  long l;
620a59a
	  char *endptr;
620a59a
620a59a
	  argv++;
620a59a
	  l = strtol (timeout_s, &endptr, 0);
620a59a
	  timeout = l;
620a59a
	  if ((endptr != NULL && *endptr != 0) || timeout < 0 || timeout != l)
620a59a
	    {
620a59a
	      fprintf (stderr, "%s: Invalid timeout value: %s\n", progname,
620a59a
		       timeout_s);
620a59a
	      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
620a59a
	    }
620a59a
	}
620a59a
    }
620a59a
620a59a
  rc = spawn (argv, timeout);
2d64357
  rip ();
2d64357
  return rc;
2d64357
}